SBI3U Expectations

CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS

*Please note that there are also science safety, inquiry, research and other skill expectations as well. These are the content expectations.

 

B.        Diversity of Living Things

Overall Expectations

B1.      analyse the effects of various human activities on the diversity of living things;

B2.      investigate, through laboratory and/or field activities or through simulations, the principles of scientific classification, using appropriate sampling and classification techniques;

B3.      demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of living organisms in terms of the principles of taxonomy and phylogeny.

 

Specific Expectations

B1.      Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment

B1.1    analyse some of the risks and benefits of human intervention (e.g., tree plantations; monoculture of livestock or agricultural crops; overharvesting of wild plants for medicinal purposes; using pesticides to control pests; suppression of wild fires) to the biodiversityof aquatic or terrestrialecosystems [AI, C]

B1.2    analyse the impact that climate change might have on the diversity of living things (e.g., rising temperatures can result in habitat loss or expansion; changing rainfall levels can cause drought or flooding of habitats) [AI, C]

 

B2.      Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication

B2.1    use appropriate terminology related to biodiversity, including, but not limited to: genetic diversity, species diversity, structural diversity, protists, bacteria, fungi, binomial nomenclature, and morphology [C]

B2.2    classify, and draw biological diagrams of, representative organisms from each of the kingdoms according to their unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., vertebrate or invertebrate organisms, vascular or nonvascular plants) [PR, AI, C]

B2.3    use proper sampling techniques to collect various organisms from a marsh, pond, field, or other ecosystem, and classify the organisms according to the principles of taxonomy [PR, AI, C]

B2.4    create andapply a dichotomous key to identify and classify organisms from each of the kingdoms [PR, AI,C]

 

B3.      Understanding Basic Concepts

B3.1    explainthe fundamental principles of taxonomy and phylogeny by defining concepts of taxonomic rank and relationship, such as genus, species, and taxon

B3.2    compare and contrast the structure and function of different types of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses (e.g., compare and contrast genetic material, metabolism, organelles, and other cell parts)

B3.3    describe unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., types of reproduction, habitat, general physical structure) of representative organisms from each of the kingdoms

B3.4    explain key structural and functional changes in organisms as they have evolved over time (e.g., the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes, of plants from unicellular organisms)

B3.5    explain why biodiversity is important to maintaining viable ecosystems (e.g., biodiversity helps increase resilience to stress and resistance to diseases or invading species)

 

C.        Evolution

Overall Expectations

C1.      analyse the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of an artificial selection technology, and evaluate the impact of environmental changes on natural selection and endangered species

C2.      investigate evolutionary processes, and analyse scientific evidence that supports the theory of evolution;

C3.      demonstrate an understanding of the theory of evolution, the evidence that supports it, and some of the mechanisms by which it occurs.

 

Specific Expectations

C1.      Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment

C1.1   analyse, on the basis of research, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvan-tages of an artificial selection technology (e.g., livestock and horticultural breeding) [IP, PR, AI, C]

C1.2   evaluate the possible impact of an environmental change on natural selection and on the vulnerability of species (e.g., adaptation to environmental changes can affect reproductive success of an organism) [AI, C]

 

C2.      Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication

C2.1   use appropriate terminology related to evolution, including, but not limited to: extinction, natural selection, phylogeny, speciation, niche, mutation, mimicry, adaptation, and survival of the fittest [C]

C2.2   use a research process to investigate some of the key factors that affect the evolutionaryprocess (e.g., genetic mutations, selective pressures, environmental stresses) [IP, PR]

C2.3   analyse, on the basis of research, and report on the contributions of various scientists to modern theories of evolution (e.g., Charles Lyell, Thomas Malthus, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge) [IP, PR, AI, C]

C2.4   investigate, through a case study or computer simulation, the processes of natural selection and artificial selection (e.g., selective breeding, antibiotic resistance in microorganisms), and analyse the different mechanisms by which they occur [PR, AI, C]

 

C3.      Understanding Basic Concepts

C3.1   explain the fundamental theory of evolution, using the evolutionary mechanism of natural selection to illustrate the process of biological change over time

C3.2   explain the process of adaptation of individual organisms to their environment (e.g., some disease-causing bacteria in a bacterial population can survive exposure to antibiotics due to slight genetic variations from the rest of the population, which allows successful surviving bacteria to pass on antibiotic resistance to the next generation)

C3.3   define the concept of speciation, and explain the process by which new species are formed

C3.4   describe some evolutionary mechanisms(e.g., natural selection, artificial selection, sexual selection, genetic variation, genetic drift, biotechnology), and explain how they affect the evolutionary development and extinction of various species (e.g., Darwin’s finches, giraffes, pandas)

 

D.        Genetic Processes

Overall Expectations

D1.      evaluate the importance of some recent contributions to our knowledge of genetic processes, and analyse social and ethical implications of genetic and genomic research

D2.      investigate genetic processes, including those that occur during meiosis, and analyse data to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid and dihybrid crosses;

D3.      demonstrate an understanding of concepts, processes, and technologies related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics.

 

Specific Expectations

D1.      Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment

D1.1   analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social and ethical implications of research in genetics and genomics (e.g., genetic screening, gene therapy, in vitro fertilization) [IP, PR, AI, C]

D1.2   evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes (e.g., research into the cystic fibrosis gene; the use of safflowers to produce insulin for human use) [IP, PR, AI, C]

 

D2.      Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication

D2.1   use appropriate terminology related to genetic processes, including, but not limited to: haploid, diploid, spindle, synapsis, gamete, zygote, heterozygous, homozygous, allele, plasmid, trisomy, non-disjunction, and somatic cell [C]

D2.2   investigatethe process of meiosis, using a microscope or similar instrument, ora computer simulation, and draw biological diagrams to help explain the main phases in the process [PR, AI, C]

D2.3   use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

D2.4   investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, and use the Punnett square method and probability rules to analyse the qualitative and quantitative data and determine the parent genotype [PR, AI, C]

 

D3.      Understanding Basic Concepts

D3.1   explain the phases in the process of meiosis in terms of cell division, the movement of chromosomes, and crossing over of genetic material

D3.2   explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

D3.3   explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

D3.4   describe some genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis) or other genetic mutations in terms of chromosomes affected, physical effects, and treatments

D3.5   describe some reproductive technologies (e.g., cloning, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, recombinant DNA), and explain how their use can increase the genetic diversity of a species (e.g., farm animals, crops)

 

E.         Animals: Structure and Function

Overall Expectations

E1.      analyse the relationships between changing societal needs, technological advances, and our understanding of internal systems of humans;

E2.      investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the functional responses of the respiratory and circulatory systems of animals, and the relationships between their respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems;

E3.      demonstrate an understanding of animal anatomy and physiology, and describe disorders of therespiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems.

 

Specific Expectations

E1.      Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment

E1.1    evaluate the importance of various technologies, including Canadian contributions,to our understanding of internal body systems (e.g., endoscopes can be used to locate, diagnose, and surgically remove digestive system tumours; lasers can be used during surgery to destroy lung tumours; nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] imaging can be used to diagnose injuries and cardiovascular disorders, such as aneurysms) [AI, C]

E1.2    assesshow societal needs (e.g., the need for healthy foods; the need to counteract the effects of sedentary lifestyles) lead to scientific and technological developments related to internal systems (e.g., advances in dietary products and fitness equipment; improved standards for transplanting organs) [AI, C]

 

E2.      Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication

E2.1    use appropriate terminology related to animal anatomy, including, but not limited to: systolic, diastolic, diffusion gradient, inhalation, exhalation, coronary, cardiac, ulcer, asthma, and constipation [C]

E2.2    perform a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a representative animal, or use a mounted anatomical model, to analyse the relationships between the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems [PR, AI]

E2.3    use medical equipment (e.g., a stethoscope, a sphygmomanometer) to monitor the functional responses of the respiratory and circulatory systems to external stimuli (e.g., measure the change in breathing rate and heart rate after exercise) [PR, AI]

 

E3.      Understanding Basic Concepts

E3.1    explain the anatomy of the respiratory system and the process of ventilation and gas exchange from the environment to the cell (e.g., the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere to the cell; the roles of ventilation, hemoglobin, and diffusion in gas exchange)

E3.2    explain the anatomy of the digestive system and the importance of digestion in providing nutrients needed for energy and growth (e.g., the body’s mechanical and chemical processes digest food, which provides the proteins needed to build muscle, and the fibre, water, vitamins, and minerals needed to regulate body processes)

E3.3    explain the anatomy of the circulatory system (e.g., blood components, blood vessels, the heart) and its function in transporting substances that are vital to health

E3.4    describe some disorders related to the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems (e.g., asthma, emphysema, ulcers, colitis, cardiac arrest, arteriosclerosis)

 

F.         Plants: Anatomy, Growth, and Function

Overall Expectations

F1.      evaluate the importance of sustainable use of plants to Canadian society and other cultures;

F2.      investigate the structures and functions of plant tissues, and factors affecting plant growth;

F3.      demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of vascular plants, including their structures, internal transport systems, and their role in maintaining biodiversity.

 

Specific Expectations

F1.      Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment

F1.1    evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of plants to the growth and development of Canadian society (e.g., as a source of food, pharmaceuticals, Aboriginal medicines, building materials, flood and erosion control; as a resource for recreation and ecotourism) [IP, PR, AI, C]

F1.2    evaluate, on the basis of research, ways in which different societies or cultures have used plants to sustain human populations while supporting environmental sustainability (e.g., sustainable agricultural practices in developing countries such as crop rotation and seed saving; traditional Aboriginal corn production practices) [IP, PR, AI, C]

 

F2.      Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication

F2.1    use appropriate terminology related to plants, including, but not limited to: mesophyll, palisade, aerenchyma, epidermal tissue, stomata, root hair, pistil, stamen, venation, auxin, and gibberellin [C]

F2.2    design and conduct an inquiry to determine the factors that affect plant growth (e.g., the effects on plant growth of the quantity of nutrients, the quantity and quality of light, and factors such as temperature and water retention or percolation rate)[IP, PR, AI]

F2.3    identify, and draw biological diagrams of, the specialized plant tissues in roots, stems, and leaves (e.g., xylem, phloem), using a microscope and models [PR, AI]

F2.4    investigate various techniques of plant propagation (e.g., leaf cutting, stem cutting, root cutting, seed germination) [PR]

 

F3.      Understanding Basic Concepts

F3.1    describe the structures of the various types of tissues in vascular plants, and explain the mechanisms of transport involved in the processes by which materials are distributed throughout a plant (e.g., transpiration, translocation, osmosis)

F3.2    compare and contrast monocot and dicot plants in terms of their structures (e.g., seeds, stem, flower, root) and their evolutionary processes (i.e., how one type evolved from the other)

F3.3    explain the reproductive mechanisms of plants in natural reproduction and artificial propagation (e.g., germination of seeds, leaf cuttings, grafting of branches onto a host tree)

F3.4    describe the various factors that affect plant growth (e.g., growth regulators, sunlight, water, nutrients, acidity, tropism)

F3.5    explain the process of ecological succession, including the role of plants in maintaining biodiversity and the survival of organisms after a disturbance to an ecosystem

 

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